Nice Côte d'Azur Airport


History

Nice Côte d'Azur Airport (French: Aéroport Nice Côte d'Azur) (IATA: NCE, ICAO: LFMN) is an airport located 3.2 NM (5.9 km; 3.7 mi) southwest of Nice, in the Alpes-Maritimes department of France. The airport is positioned 7 km (4 mi) west of the city centre, and is the principal port of arrival for passengers to the Côte d'Azur. It is the third busiest airport in France after Charles de Gaulle International Airport and Orly Airport, both in Paris. It is located on the western end of the Promenade des Anglais, near l'Arénas and has two terminals. Due to its proximity to the Principality of Monaco, it also serves as that city-state's airport, with helicopter service linking the city and airport. Some airlines marketed Monaco as a destination via Nice Airport.

The Chamber of Commerce and the Nice Côte d'Azur industry operate the airport.[citation needed] The airport's director is Hervé de Place, director of the Côte d'Azur airports, which includes Côte d'Azur International Airport's cousin airport, Cannes-Mandelieu. In 2010, 9,603,014 passengers travelled through the airport, a number that increased to 10,422,073 for 2011. Nice Côte d'Azur Airport also serves as a hub for Air France.

John F. Kennedy International Airport


Construction

John F. Kennedy International Airport was originally known as Idlewild Airport (IATA: IDL, ICAO: KIDL, FAA LID: IDL) after the Idlewild Golf Course that it displaced. The airport was originally envisioned as a reliever for LaGuardia Airport, which had insufficient capacity in the late 1930s. Construction began in 1943 by local firms such as the Edenwald Group headed by the late Charles Follini Sr., a decorated former FDNY fireman; about $60 million was initially spent, but only 1,000 acres (400 ha) of land on the site of the Idlewild golf course were earmarked for use.

The project was renamed Major General Alexander E. Anderson Airport in 1943 after a Queens resident who had commanded a Federalized National Guard unit in the southern United States and who had died in late 1942. In March 1948 the New York City Council again changed the name to New York International Airport, Anderson Field, but the airport was commonly known as "Idlewild" until 1963.[8]

The Port Authority leased the airport property from the City of New York in 1947 and maintains this lease as of the late 2000s.The first commercial flight at the airport was on July 1, 1948; the opening ceremony was attended by President Harry Truman. The Port Authority cancelled foreign airlines' permits to use LaGuardia, effectively forcing them to move to the new airport during the next couple of years.

The airport opened with six runways and a seventh under construction;runways 1L and 7L were held in reserve and never came into use as runways. Runway 31R (originally 8,000 ft/2,438 m) is still in use; runway 31L (originally 9,500 ft/2,896 m) opened soon after the rest of the airport and is still in use; runway 1R closed in the 1950s and runway 7R closed around 1966. Runway 4 (originally 8,000 ft, now runway 4L) opened June 1949 and runway 4R was added ten years later.

The Avro Jetliner landed at Idlewild on April 18, 1950 and maybe in January 1951; a Caravelle prototype was the next jet airliner to land at Idlewild, on May 2, 1957. Later in 1957 the USSR sought approval for two Tu-104 flights carrying Soviet diplomats to Idlewild; the Port Authority did not allow them, saying noise tests had to be done first. (The Caravelle had been tested at Paris.)

The airport was renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport on December 24, 1963, one month after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

Development

The Port Authority originally envisioned a single 55-gate terminal for the airport, but the major airlines of the time did not agree with this plan, arguing that the terminal would be far too small for future traffic.Architect Wallace Harrison then designed a master plan under which each major airline at the airport would be given its own space to develop its own terminal design.This scheme made construction more practical, made terminals more navigable and introduced incentives for airlines to compete with each other for the best design.The revised master plan met airline approval in 1955.

    The International Arrivals Building, or IAB, was the first new terminal project at the airport, opening in December 1957. Stretching nearly 700 meters (2,300 ft) parallel to runway 7R where Terminal 4 is now, it was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and featured "finger" piers constructed at right-angles to the main building. These allowed a greater number of aircraft to park, a major innovation at the time.
    United Airlines opened Terminal 7 (later renumbered Terminal 9), a Skidmore design similar to that of the IAB, in October 1959. Eastern Airlines opened its Chester L. Churchill-designed Terminal 1 one month later.
    American Airlines opened its Terminal 8 in 1960. The terminal was designed by Kahn and Jacobs and became known for its 317 feet (97 m) stained glass facade designed by Robert Sowers, which was the largest stained glass installation in the world until 1979. The facade was removed in 2007 as the terminal was demolished to make room for the new Terminal 8; American cited the prohibitive cost of removing the enormous installation.
    Pan American World Airways opened the Worldport (now Terminal 3) in 1960. It featured a large, elliptical roof suspended by 32 sets of radial posts and cables; the roof extended 114 feet (35 m) beyond the base of the terminal to cover the passenger loading area. It was one of the first airline terminals in the world to feature Jetways that connected to the terminal and that could be moved to provide an easy walkway for passengers from the terminal to a docked aircraft, rather than having to board the plane outside via airstairs, which descend from an aircraft, via truck-mounted mobile stairs, or via wheeled stairs.
    Trans World Airlines opened the TWA Flight Center in 1962, designed by Eero Saarinen with a distinctive winged-bird shape. With the demise of TWA in 2001, the terminal remained vacant until 2005 when JetBlue Airways and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) financed the construction of a new 26-gate terminal partly encircling the Saarinen building. Called now Terminal 5 (or simply T5), the new terminal opened October 22, 2008. T5 is connected to the Saarinen central building through the original passenger departure-arrival tubes which connected the building to the outlying gates; the Port Authority is working on renovations of the remaining original Saarinen terminal, also known as the head house.
    Northwest Airlines, Braniff International and Northeast Airlines opened a joint terminal in 1962.
    National Airlines opened the Sundrome (now Terminal 6) in 1970. The terminal was designed by I.M.Pei. It was unique for its use of all-glass mullions dividing the window sections, unprecedented at the time.In 2001, United Airlines planned to redevelop this terminal and the TWA Flight Center as a new United terminal, but the airline later reduced its operation at JFK and abandoned plans for a future JFK hub.[citation needed] Terminal 6 was used by JetBlue Airways from 2001 through 2008 and vacated when JetBlue moved to Terminal 5.

JFK was designed to accommodate aircraft up to 300,000-pound (140,000 kg) gross weightand had to be significantly modified in the late 1960s to accommodate Boeing 747s.

In 1951 Idlewild averaged 73 daily airline operations (takeoffs plus landings); the October 1951 Airline Guide shows nine domestic departures a day, on National and Northwest. (Some of TWA's transatlantic flights had domestic segments but carried no domestic passengers.) When Newark closed in February 1952 much of its traffic moved to Idlewild, which averaged 242 daily airline operations in 1952. L-1049 Constellations and DC-7s appeared in 1951–53 and didn't use LGA for their first several years, bringing more traffic to IDL. The April 1957 OAG shows two departures a week on Aerolineas Argentinas, 24 on Air France, 164 American, 6 Avianca, 42 BOAC and BWIA, 35 Capital, 7 Cubana, 252 Eastern, 2 El Al, 2 Iberia, 7 Icelandic, 17 KLM, 2 LAI, 6 LAV, 9 Lufthansa, 156 National, 75 Northwest, 131 Pan American, 9 Sabena, 26 SAS, 6 Swissair, 95 Trans-Canada, 115 TWA, 90 United and 3 Varig. (For most airlines the counts are for the beginning of April, but some transatlantic airlines only show their expanded schedules starting later in the month.)

Airlines began scheduling jets into Idlewild in 1958–59; LaGuardia didn't get jet airliners until 1964, so Idlewild soon became New York's busiest airline airport. In 1962–67 it had more airline takeoffs and landings than LGA and EWR combined and was the second-busiest airline airport in the country, peaking at 403,981 airline operations in 1967. During 1960–66 LaGuardia got a new terminal and longer runways, and by the middle 1970s the two airports had roughly equal passenger airline traffic (by flight count, not passenger count). (Until the 1980s Newark was always third place, except during LGA's reconstruction.) The supersonic Concorde, operated by Air France and British Airways, provided scheduled trans-Atlantic supersonic service to JFK from November 22, 1977 until October 24, 2003, when Concorde was retired by both carriers. JFK had the most Concorde operations annually of any airport in the world.[citation needed]

JFK went through a $10.3 billion redevelopment. The airport began construction of the AirTrain JFK rapid transit system in 1998; completed in December 2003, the rail network links each airport terminal to New York City subways and regional commuter trains at Howard Beach and Jamaica, Queens. The airport opened a new Terminal 1 on May 28, 1998, and the $1.4 billion replacement for the International Arrivals Building, Terminal 4, opened on May 24, 2001. Construction has been completed on JetBlue Airways's new Terminal 5, which incorporates the historic landmark TWA FlightCenter terminal, while Terminals 8 and 9 were recently demolished and rebuilt as a unified Terminal 8 for the American Airlines hub. In 2008 the Port Authority Board of Commissioners approved a $20 million planning study for the much needed redevelopment of Terminals 2 and 3, the hub of Delta Air Lines.

On March 19, 2007, JFK became the first airport in the United States to receive the Airbus A380 with passengers aboard. The route-proving flight with more than 500 passengers was operated jointly by Lufthansa and Airbus and arrived at Terminal 1. On August 1, 2008, JFK received the first regularly scheduled commercial A380 flight to the United States, operated by Emirates on its New York–Dubai route using Terminal 4. This service was suspended in 2009, due to poor passenger demand.Re-introduced in November 2010, Emirates operate their A380 aircraft to JFK.

 

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